The crystalline structure of silk ﬁbroin Silk I is generally considered to be metastable structure and will transition to the crystalline structure of Silk II, however, under what conditions this crystalline structure is stable and under what conditions the transition will occur is not deﬁnite. In this paper, silk ﬁbroin protein solution was prepared from silkworm cocoon, the glycerol/silk ﬁbroin protein blend ﬁlm containing Silk I crystalline structure was prepared with a glycerol/silk ﬁbroin mass ratio of 20: 100, and a pure silk ﬁbroin solution was used as a raw material to prepare a silk ﬁbroin protein ﬁlm rich in random coil structure. Diﬀerent concentrations of methanol and ethanol were used to soak the above two materials to investigate the inﬂuence of monohydric alcohol on the crystalline structure of silk ﬁbroin materials. X-ray diﬀraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman scattering spectroscopy (Raman) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the structure of silk ﬁbroin before and after the treatments. The results showed that after methanol and ethanol treatment, the pure silk ﬁbroin protein ﬁlm with random curled structure was transformed into Silk II crystal structure, while the glycerin/silk ﬁbroin protein ﬁlm still showed the crystal structure of Silk I without obvious transformation. Two experimental methods of high temperature wetting and high temperature soaking were set, and four temperature gradients of 60 ◦C, 80 ◦C, 100 ◦C and 120 ◦C were set to explore the inﬂuence of high temperature on the structure of silk ﬁbroin protein materials. In order to investigate the time stability of crystal structure of Silk I, glycerin/silk ﬁbroin blend ﬁlm and pure silk ﬁbroin protein ﬁlm were placed in an oven at 60 ◦C for 32 days. The structure of the material was examined by XRD, FTIR and Raman test techniques before and after placement. The results showed that the glycerin/silk ﬁbroin ﬁlm with crystal structure of Silk I had no obvious structural changes and had good humidity and heat stability and time stability. The random coil structure of pure Silk ﬁlm gradually changed to the more regular crystal structure of Silk I and Silk II. Glycerin/silk ﬁbroin protein blend ﬁlm has considerable stability and can be used as biomaterials.
In order to promote the development of universal fashion design, this paper designs and develops leg warmer, which meets the special demands for the people with lower limb dysfunction, with regards to warmth, style, aesthetics and convenience. It refers to two types of them, namely polio and spinal cord injury. First, through literature review and experimental research on thermal imaging camera temperature measurement, the paper ﬁnds people with lower limb dysfunction more sensitive to low temperature and their objective body surface temperature is lower than that of people who do not have a disability. Furthermore, the size between the legs is usually diﬀerent. The survey and interview together with the research on existing products, revealed that there is a large demand for the special structure and function of the leg warmers due to the movement obstacles which are yet prevalent. The product, with the focus on close ﬁtting, ﬂexibility and warmth, uses light-weight fabrics and warm keeping materials which tend to be active or good at preserving the warmth. Finally, combined with the circumstances where it is used, three design schemes are proposed, including the inner closed leg warmer, the outer open close leg warmer and the outer combined waist warmer and leg warmer. After, one of them use the functional yarn which is called full-spectrum heat storage polyamide 6 ﬁber yarn (77.8dtex/48-68F) to make ﬁnished products and then be tested. Also, this paper proposes the design concept of multiple sizes and general adaptability of the same double leg warmer. Moreover, the sample of leg warmers is completed. The research of this paper is of fundamental importance and valuable for the future development and application of leg warmer for the people with lower limb dysfunction.
Fast fashion has sped up the practice of weaving non-degradable petrochemical textiles into their chic and cheap garments. This has caused environmental damages from production, manufacture, and landﬁlling. Bioplastic is a bio-polymers combined material supposed to be either biobased, biodegradable, or features both properties. Bioplastic-based textile with enhanced performance of degradability, lower carbon footprint and multi-functions is gradually drawing attention from the industry. In recent years, the increasing cooperation between biotechnology start-up companies and fashion brands have also proved that bio-fashion would be a driving force to reduce pollution and build a sustainable fashion system in the future. This essay aims to translate the term sustainability into bioplastic-based material innovation and explore its potential application to fashion and textile design. Through a series of experiments on the formula, texture and design of bioplastics, the study demonstrates a guideline to designers on innovating bioplastic materials and seeks potential application in the fashion and textile design contexts.
Coronavirus belongs to the novel virulent strains of the respiratory viruses. It is an invisible enemy having signiﬁcant threats to human health. The major trouble is that the spread of coronavirus is not limited to its transmission from human to human (by contact, fomites, and droplets) but also continue to transmit from contaminated surfaces to humans. These infectious viruses can survive in diﬀerent non- biocidal materials for a long time. Copper holds a signiﬁcant position in diﬀerent biological and biochemical processes because its ions Cu+2 and Cu+ can carry out oxidation, dioxygen transportation, and electron transference. It is a redox-active metal. It can convert into Cu+2 or Cu+ state by accepting or donating electrons. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are generated on alloy surfaces. The redox reaction of copper (Cu+2 ↔ Cu+) along with the generation of ROS results in enhanced inactivation of the virus. In this review, the eﬀectiveness of copper against coronaviruses has been explained. The denaturing of speciﬁc proteins of coronavirus by the interaction of copper and its ions has also been reported. Hence, the copper coated surfaces could be used in public areas. Furthermore, the review represents the diﬀerent techniques used for the coating of copper on conductive and non-conductive surfaces.
Neurological disorders aﬀect the central and peripheral nervous system covering the brain, spinal chord, cranial nerves, nervous system and neuromuscular junction. There is an unsatisﬁed need for a non-invasive ambient measuring system which can record patients’ vital body levels autonomously and in real-time. There is also an acute need to detect diseases at prodromal stages in patients that may carry asymptomatic characteristics of underlying disease. The opportunities oﬀered through innovations in wearable electronic textiles can provide a solution to this by measuring biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease detection, and other neurological disorders, through a non-invasive biosensor that detects protein levels in saliva. This is an area which has large gaps in research around utilising these technologies for early diagnosis of injury, and for diﬀerentiating between stages of illness to provide more accurate and bespoke neurological healthcare.