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  2021, Volume 14 Issue 3, 30 September 2021
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Stability of Silk Fibroin Blend Films with Silk I Structure
Zhenzhen Qi, Meihui Zhao, Xiaosheng Tao, Geyu Jin, Shenzhou Lu
JFBI. 2021, 14 (3): 127-140.   DOI: 10.3993/jfbim00370
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The crystalline structure of silk fibroin Silk I is generally considered to be metastable structure and will transition to the crystalline structure of Silk II, however, under what conditions this crystalline structure is stable and under what conditions the transition will occur is not definite. In this paper, silk fibroin protein solution was prepared from silkworm cocoon, the glycerol/silk fibroin protein blend film containing Silk I crystalline structure was prepared with a glycerol/silk fibroin mass ratio of 20: 100, and a pure silk fibroin solution was used as a raw material to prepare a silk fibroin protein film rich in random coil structure. Different concentrations of methanol and ethanol were used to soak the above two materials to investigate the influence of monohydric alcohol on the crystalline structure of silk fibroin materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman scattering spectroscopy (Raman) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the structure of silk fibroin before and after the treatments. The results showed that after methanol and ethanol treatment, the pure silk fibroin protein film with random curled structure was transformed into Silk II crystal structure, while the glycerin/silk fibroin protein film still showed the crystal structure of Silk I without obvious transformation. Two experimental methods of high temperature wetting and high temperature soaking were set, and four temperature gradients of 60 ◦C, 80 ◦C, 100 ◦C and 120 ◦C were set to explore the influence of high temperature on the structure of silk fibroin protein materials. In order to investigate the time stability of crystal structure of Silk I, glycerin/silk fibroin blend film and pure silk fibroin protein film were placed in an oven at 60 ◦C for 32 days. The structure of the material was examined by XRD, FTIR and Raman test techniques before and after placement. The results showed that the glycerin/silk fibroin film with crystal structure of Silk I had no obvious structural changes and had good humidity and heat stability and time stability. The random coil structure of pure Silk film gradually changed to the more regular crystal structure of Silk I and Silk II. Glycerin/silk fibroin protein blend film has considerable stability and can be used as biomaterials.

Universal Fashion Design on the Leg Warmer for the Lower Limb Dysfunctional People
Chiyu Xiong, Jinhui Ren, Yanjun Wang, Limin Shi, Qi Wang, Jing Guo, Haiqiao Huang, Qingqing Zhou
JFBI. 2021, 14 (3): 141-156.   DOI: 10.3993/jfbim00360
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In order to promote the development of universal fashion design, this paper designs and develops leg warmer, which meets the special demands for the people with lower limb dysfunction, with regards to warmth, style, aesthetics and convenience. It refers to two types of them, namely polio and spinal cord injury. First, through literature review and experimental research on thermal imaging camera temperature measurement, the paper finds people with lower limb dysfunction more sensitive to low temperature and their objective body surface temperature is lower than that of people who do not have a disability. Furthermore, the size between the legs is usually different. The survey and interview together with the research on existing products, revealed that there is a large demand for the special structure and function of the leg warmers due to the movement obstacles which are yet prevalent. The product, with the focus on close fitting, flexibility and warmth, uses light-weight fabrics and warm keeping materials which tend to be active or good at preserving the warmth. Finally, combined with the circumstances where it is used, three design schemes are proposed, including the inner closed leg warmer, the outer open close leg warmer and the outer combined waist warmer and leg warmer. After, one of them use the functional yarn which is called full-spectrum heat storage polyamide 6 fiber yarn (77.8dtex/48-68F) to make finished products and then be tested. Also, this paper proposes the design concept of multiple sizes and general adaptability of the same double leg warmer. Moreover, the sample of leg warmers is completed. The research of this paper is of fundamental importance and valuable for the future development and application of leg warmer for the people with lower limb dysfunction.

An Experiment-based Study on Bioplastic Applied to Fashion and Textile Design
Yutan He, Mingke Wang, Rong Zheng
JFBI. 2021, 14 (3): 157-171.   DOI: 10.3993/jfbim00379
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Fast fashion has sped up the practice of weaving non-degradable petrochemical textiles into their chic and cheap garments. This has caused environmental damages from production, manufacture, and landfilling. Bioplastic is a bio-polymers combined material supposed to be either biobased, biodegradable, or features both properties. Bioplastic-based textile with enhanced performance of degradability, lower carbon footprint and multi-functions is gradually drawing attention from the industry. In recent years, the increasing cooperation between biotechnology start-up companies and fashion brands have also proved that bio-fashion would be a driving force to reduce pollution and build a sustainable fashion system in the future. This essay aims to translate the term sustainability into bioplastic-based material innovation and explore its potential application to fashion and textile design. Through a series of experiments on the formula, texture and design of bioplastics, the study demonstrates a guideline to designers on innovating bioplastic materials and seeks potential application in the fashion and textile design contexts.

Impact of Copper and Emerging Technologies against Novel Coronavirus
Azam Ali, Mehrukh Zehravi, Muhammad Farrukh Tahir, Asif Ali, Muhammad Zaman Khan, Dana Kremenakova, Jiri Militky
JFBI. 2021, 14 (3): 173-188.   DOI: 10.3993/jfbim00382
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Coronavirus belongs to the novel virulent strains of the respiratory viruses. It is an invisible enemy having significant threats to human health. The major trouble is that the spread of coronavirus is not limited to its transmission from human to human (by contact, fomites, and droplets) but also continue to transmit from contaminated surfaces to humans. These infectious viruses can survive in different non- biocidal materials for a long time. Copper holds a significant position in different biological and biochemical processes because its ions Cu+2 and Cu+ can carry out oxidation, dioxygen transportation, and electron transference. It is a redox-active metal. It can convert into Cu+2 or Cu+ state by accepting or donating electrons. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are generated on alloy surfaces. The redox reaction of copper (Cu+2 ↔ Cu+) along with the generation of ROS results in enhanced inactivation of the virus. In this review, the effectiveness of copper against coronaviruses has been explained. The denaturing of specific proteins of coronavirus by the interaction of copper and its ions has also been reported. Hence, the copper coated surfaces could be used in public areas. Furthermore, the review represents the different techniques used for the coating of copper on conductive and non-conductive surfaces.

Designing Wearable Electronic Textiles to Detect Early Signs of Neurological Injury and Disease: A Review
Bethany Richardson, Yi Li
JFBI. 2021, 14 (3): 189-198.   DOI: 10.3993/jfbim00371
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Neurological disorders affect the central and peripheral nervous system covering the brain, spinal chord, cranial nerves, nervous system and neuromuscular junction. There is an unsatisfied need for a non-invasive ambient measuring system which can record patients’ vital body levels autonomously and in real-time. There is also an acute need to detect diseases at prodromal stages in patients that may carry asymptomatic characteristics of underlying disease. The opportunities offered through innovations in wearable electronic textiles can provide a solution to this by measuring biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease detection, and other neurological disorders, through a non-invasive biosensor that detects protein levels in saliva. This is an area which has large gaps in research around utilising these technologies for early diagnosis of injury, and for differentiating between stages of illness to provide more accurate and bespoke neurological healthcare.

Table of Contents - JFBI Vol 14 No 3
JFBI. 2021, 14 (3): 1000-.
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JFBI Vol 14 No 3 Cover
JFBI. 2021, 14 (3): 1001-.
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ISSN 1940-8676
Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Yi Li
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